The “Straight & Narrow Way”


‘My son, do not make light of the Lord’s discipline, and do not lose heart when he rebukes you,
because the Lord disciplines those he loves, and he punishes everyone he accepts as a son.’
 (Hebrews 12:5)

‘Wee...doe hereby solemnly, and religiously...Promisse, and bind our selves, to walke in all our wayes
accordingto the Rule of the Gospell, and in all sincere Conformity to His holy Ordinaunces...’

(First Church Boston Covenant, July 30, 1630)

‘Sin and shame ever goe together. He that would be freed from the last, must be sure to shun the company of the first.
(Anne Bradstreet, Meditations Divine and Moral)

“I appeal to you, brothers, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that all of you agree with one another
so that there may be no divisions among you and that you may be perfectly united in mind and thought.
(1 Corinthians 1:10 AV)

‘So watch yourselves. If your brother sins, rebuke him, and if he repent, forgive him.’
(Luke 17:3)

“Forgive us our debts, as we have forgiven our debtors.” [Moral debts, i e, sins.]
(Matthew 6:12)


As needed, in the period after the Sunday afternoon service, the officers - Elders & Deacons - and the Congregation remained in their places while the church building turned into a setting similar to the proceedings of a [religious] court of law.
The Ruling Elder [mostly, but, as well, the Preaching or Teaching Elder] would bring forth charges against a member of the church who had ‘strayed from the New England Way.’

This Church member, a ‘Visible Saint,’ would be allowed to rebut the officer’s charges, as well as those of the congregation who had witnessed the ‘sin(s).’ Once the charges had been raised and defended, the presiding officer would call the question of guilt to be voted upon.
Depending on the seriousness of the charge, one of three levels of punishment were meted out:
1) To be Admonished, the member would carry their guilt into succeeding services.
2) To be Cast out of the Church, the member would be denied entry to services.
          Being denied entrance to the Church building means being denied communion.
          Taking communion signifies the opportunity to confess one’s ‘sins.’
          This central action of one’s faith offers prospective ‘salvation,’ i e, ‘eternal life.’
3) To be Excommunicated carried permanent expulsion from the community.

Acting according to their rules of congregational polity, the voting members replace the hierarchical
Church of England to vote a verdict by the ‘raising of hands,’ or ’their silence,’ which was typically unanimous. Those differing would normally abstain. Voting practices show developing sophistication: ‘Yea or nea,’ majority.]

Should the ‘penitent’ [later, in a return appearance to the ‘church court’] appeal the vote by making an honest, full & convincing confession, congregational polity assured them that they would be returned to the fold, be welcomed with open arms, in “love and mutuall respect.” The prodigal would have returned home and been “Restored unto the Fellowship.” The purity of the Visible Saints would have once again been regained.
These democratic procedures in the hands of the members represent the ‘New England Way.’ Recent commentary suggests that this process morphed into ‘the American Way,’ whether in the church or the community - the ‘Commonwealth.’

[Page numbers refer to the printed edition of FCB records. Italics are an editorial addition.].


Case #1, Page 20 Robert Parker July 24, 1636
"Robert Parker, our brother, whoe was excommunicated the 6th of the 10th Moneth, 1635 [December 6, 1635] for scandalous oppression
of his wife’s children in selling away their inheritance from them, and other hard usage both of her & them, was this day, upon profession
of his repentance, received again [in]to the fellowship of the Church".
                                                       [Type of vote unrecorded.]

Case #2, Page 21 Anne Hutchinson March 15, 1638
"Anne, the wife of our Brother Willyam Hutchinson having on the 15th of this Moneth beene openly in Publique Congregation admonished of sundry Errors held by her was on the same 22th day Cast out of the Church for impenitently persisting in a manifest lye then expressed by her in open Congregation.
[The FCB vote for Anne Hutchinson’s excommunication divided the Church. Thirty or more families in the Mass Bay Colony joined her in the trek to Rhode Island where they founded another church.]

Case #3, Page 22 Judith Smith April 15, 1638
"Judith Smith, having been formerly in private admonished of sundry Errors, was then for her obstinate persisting therein in the Congregation & for sundry lyes then expressed by her & persisted in was Cast out of the Church with joint [unanimous] Consent."
[No further entry in the Records.]

Case #4, Page 22 Anne Walker April 29, 1638
[Church Records show the children James in 1634 & Jabez in 1637 being baptised.]
"Anne Walker, the wife of one Richard Walker & sometime the wife & widdow of our brother Robert Houlton, having before this day been often privately Admonished of sundry Scandalls, as of Drunkenish, Intemperate, and unclean or wantonish behavior, & likewise of Cruelty towards her Children; also of manifold lyes & still to this day persisting impenitently therein, was therefore now with Joynt Consent of the Congregation Cast out of the Church.
[No further entry of Robert Houlton or the Walkers in the Records.]

Case #5, Page 22 Richard Turner November 11, 1638
"Our brother Richard Turner having beene openly [publicly] found drunken by the excessive drinking of strong water was this day Cast out of the Church for the same Offence."

Case #6, Page 22 Richard Wayte January 13, 1639
"Our brother Richard Wayte having purloyned [stolen] out of buckskyn lether brought unto him, soe much thereof as would make 3 mens gloves to the Scandall of sundry without [the congregation], as well as of his brethren, & also having beene by some of the brethren dealt withall for it, did often deny and forsweare the same, without harkening to their Convincings according to the Rule [of the Gospel], or to
the Church to which it was brought, was therefore this day, with Joynt Consent of the Congregation Cast out of the Church."

Case # 7, Page 25 Phillipe Hammond September 1, 1639
"Philip [sic], the wife of our brother Robert Harding, admitted [to membership] of the Church] by the name of Philip [sic] Hammond, widdow, was Excommunicated for speaking evill of Authority both in Church & Common weale: For having said in open Court that Mrs. Hutchinson neyther deserved the Censure which was putt upon her in the Church, nor in the Common Weale; It was proved against her in the Church by the witness of our brother Richard Truesdale & our brother Samuell Cole that she had also spoken the like words of Defamation both in her shopp & other meetings, whereof not being able to give any account from Scripture, she was finally Cast out of the Church [sic - excommunicated] as a slaunderer & revyler both of the Church & the Common Weale, after the Example of Miriam, Numbers 12: 1-15, & according to the Rule of the Apostles: [I Corinthians: 5 - 11] “If any brother be a Reviler, with such a one eate not.”      

[In her appearance before the FCB Congregation, Goodwife Phillipe Harding was charged with having spoken ‘evil of Authority,’ both that of the Church Officers & the [Civil] Magistrates. She had said that ‘Mrs. Hutchinson did not deserve the censure’ of either. She had [also] ‘spoken openly & in her shop,’ But she also could not ‘give any account from Scripture [for her reasonings].’ The FCB Records gratuitously provide the following, first, from Numbers, & then from I Corinthians for the Congregation to consult.]
[Numbers 12: 1-15 [abridged]: Miriam & Aaron - sister & brother of Moses - oppose Moses. They ask: ‘Hasn’t [God also] spoken through us?’ They are jealous of the prophetic gift of Moses & his special relationship with God. Their arrogance was a charge against Moses’ leadership. To Moses, God spoke with special clarity, as though ‘face to face.’ Appearing in “a pillar of cloud,” God confronted all three with these words: “When a prophet of the Lord is among you, I reveal myself to him in visions, I speak to him in dreams. With [Moses] I speak face to face, clearly & not in riddles; he sees the form of the LORD.’ (Condensed from The NIV Study Bible.)]

Case # 8, Page 25 Robert Keayne November 26, 1639
"...being a day of Publique fast for our Congregation, our brother Mr Robert Keayne was Admonisht by our pastor [John Wilson] in the Name of the Church for selling his wares at excessive Rates, to the Dishonor of Gods Name, the Offence of the General Court, & the Publique Scandall of the Cuntry."

Case # 9, Page 26 John Pemmerton November 26, 1639
"In like sort was our brother John Pemmerton Admonisht, for his unbrotherly Contention with our brother John Baker, and for his unsavory Revyling speeches given to him, to the Offence of the Church at Newberry to whom they had been Recommended."

Case # 10, Page 26 John Webb December 15, 1639
"Also this Day our brother John Webb (otherwise Everett) was Admonisht by our pastor with Consent of the Church, for that a day of Humiliation being called, upon speciall and weighty occasion, He did not onely absent himself that day without just Cause, but did also take liberty to spend part of the day in feasting and sporting at Quoytes abroad, and that in the Company of such whereof some of them were Scandalous."

Case # 11, Page 27 John Webb January 26, 1640
"Whereas upon the 5th day of the last 10th Moneth our brother John Webb (otherwise Evered) was Admonished for sinfully absenting himself from the Congregation upon a Day of Humiliation,and for taking liberty to sportings and vaine Company on the same Day; and hath now (by the Grace of God) penetentially made open acknowledgment of his sinfulnesse therin, He is become Reconciled to the Church."

[A follow-up to Anne Hutchinson’s Excommunication, February 16, 1640:] “Our breathren Mr Willyam Hibbon, Captaine Edward Gibon and Mr John Oliver were Chosen [by vote] to goe to the Iseland of Aquethinicke [Aquidneck] to inquyre of the state of matters amongst our brethren there, and to require some satisfactory Aunswer about such things as wee heare to be Offensive amongst them.”]

Case # 12 Page 26/7 James Mattock February 23, 1640
"James Mattocke, cooper, by our pastor (in the Name of the Lord and with the Consent of the Church, taken by their silence) Cast out of the Church for these Scandalls Committed by him, partly in Ould England and partly in New England.
In ould England,
1. For that he denyed Coniugall fellowship unto his wife for the space of 2 years together, upon pretence of taking Revenge upon himself for his abusing of her before marryage, and also for the avoyding of Charge by Children of her, when as yet he very suspiciously and offensively frequented the Company of one Whittakers wife all that time, and gave her 2s [two shillings] a week towards her maintenance, yea so obstinately Continuing therein as that the Magistrate of Bristow Imprisoned him in Newgate pryson there for tenn days and her the said Whittakers wife in Bridewell there.
2. For that in Ould England after his profession of Religion he was knowne to be sundry times drunken, and so ragingly overtaken therewith at one time, as that he offered uncleane dallyance and flfthy Carryage to a Certaine maid in a victualing house openly.
3. In New England for that he was openly drunken 2 times. Also for that from hence he hath sundry times written to the said Whittakers wife for her Comeing hether, and that having received 4 letters from her, and pretending to show her letters to the Elders, he brought theim [sic] but 2 of the sd [said] 4 letters, and (as he said) burnt the other wherein the greatest evills betwixt them was suspected to bee."

Case # 13, Page 28/9 Captain Underhill March 5, 1640
"Our brother Captaine John Underhill was in Publique Congregacion [sic] by our Pastor [John Wilson] in the Name of the Lord and of the Church excommunicated for Committing Adultery with the wife of one Joseph Febar, a Cooper, and also for Attempting the like with one Jane Howmes, the wife of Robert Howmes of Cambridge, husbandman--As allsoe for Revyling the Governor and othere of the Magistrates,
--threatening Revenge and Destruction to the Country, and writing slaunderous lies to the State of England for that end; All which he, the said Captain Underhill Confessed, but not in such measure of humiliation, as might satisfye the Church, in the trueth of his Repentance, answerable to his Crymes; his Confessions being mingled with sundry Causelesse self Justifyings, and some falshood as saying he never abused the Scripture to draw on any to sinne, whereas it was proved that he had intised [enticed] some to folly or lewdnesse upon pretence
to knock them off from their owne Righteousnesse
, as the afforsed Jane Howmes, to whom he had Confessed that so he knockt off the sd Febars wife from her own Righteousnesse."

Case # 14, Page 28 Temperance Sweete March 8, 1640
"Also our sistar Temperance Sweete, the wife of one John Sweet was by our pastor [John Wilson] (in the Name of the Lord and with the Consent of the Church taken by their silent vote) Admonisht for having received into house and given entertainment unto disorderly Company and ministring unto them wine and strong waters even unto Drunkennesse and that not without some iniquity both in the measure and pryce thereof."

Case # 15, Page 28 Temperance Sweete April 5, 1640
"Whereas our sister Temperance Sweete was upon the 8th Day of the last first Moneth Admonisht for having received to house and given entertainment unto disorderly Company and ministring unto them wine and strong waters even unto Drunkennesse with some iniquity both
in the measure and pryce thereof;
but hath by the Grace of God penetentially made open acknowledgment of her sinfullnesse, therein She is become Reconciled to the Church."

Case #, 16, Page 29/30 Robert Wayte May 3, 1640
"Whereas our brother Richard Wayte was [had been] on the 13th of the 11th Moneth 1638 Cast out of the Church for sundry Scandalls, He is this day upon his penitentiall acknowledgment thereof (through the Grace of God) Received againe into the Fellowship of the Church."

Case # 17, Page 29 Robert Keayne May 7, 1640
[‘...is ‘now become Reconciled to the Church.’]

Case # 18, Page 29/30 George Bate May 31, 1640
"Our brother George Bate formerly Dismissed to the Church at Exeter, was upon letters of Dismission from them again Received into [FCB] Church fellowship, and also..." [Record ends.]

Case # 19, Page 30 John Pemmerton July 19, 1640
["...is this day become Reconciled to the Church."]

Case # 20, Page 30 Richard Wayte July 19, 1640
"Also our brother Richard Wayte was Excommunicated for his grosse Dissembling before God and the Church in the day of his Readmission after his formal Excommunication; wherein though he was solemnely provoked to make a thorow Confession of such things as he knew had beene offensive to the brethren, and professed that he did noe lesse, yet the matters of sinfull practise betweene him and one Lesty [Lester] Gunton (in manifold inordinate drinkings and other things indiciall [---] to his Master) where he was stirred up by three of the brethren to
give glory unto God
and to disburden his own Conscience; and though he knew himself guilty, yet he did not at all Confesse but pretended Innocency herein, yea unto the said brethren did utterly deny, that he knew any evill by himself therein--yea after sinfull drinkings or practises, or Confederacyes with him, he utterly denyed that ever he had beene therein guilty, no never, no never.[!]
Neverthelesse when he did perceive such matters were by the providence of God otherwise brought to light, then he acknowledged his guiltinesse in a great measure (though not all at once), both of frequent wine drinkings, & that sometime with his forsaking the lecture for it, and though he knew or believed the said Lester, both in those wine drinkings and otherwise to doe Acts injuryous to his Masters state, yet
did he never, eyther before his said Readmission or since
(till upon the afforesaid occasion) ether acquaint his Master with such wrongs done to him, nor yet deale with Lester at all to bring him to Repentance for it; And not onely denyed any Confederacy or promise of secrecy to have beene between them, which yet was Confidently and Constantly affirmed both privately and publiquely by the said Lester, but alsoe denyed flatly that ever he had been asked such a question by any of the brethren, or that he made any such denyalls unto them, eyther about
the time of his Readmission, or yet since, whereof they
[the witnesses] testifyed the Contrary solemnely--neither did he give the Church satisfaction by due signes of true Repentance, neither for his said dissembling before the whole Church (in the day of his professed Repentance) nor yet for such wicked things to the brethren from time to time aginst his owne knowledge and Conscience, but did rather carry the matter both in private dealings before the Elders and divers brethren very high bravingly and stubbornly, and expressed great hardness of heart under the publique dealing of the Church; And being thus cast out, he turned againe and openly professed that his Conscience did not in the least manner accuse him of not hearing eyther any of the brethren in private or of the Church in publique, to the great greife and astonishment of all the brethren."

Case # 21, Page 31 Ann Hibbon September 20, 1640/1
"Mrs Anne Hibbon our sister was by our pastor with the Consent of the Church, In the Name of the Lord Admonisht of her uncharitable Jealousies and Suspicions without sufficient Cause against sundry of the brethren that are Joyners, and other Neighbors of the same Calling, as if they were of a Combination extortionously to sett high rates upon their worke, and for her obstinately persisting therein and impenitently against all the meanes that were taken for her satisfying therein, and also for many other disorderly things that passed from her Carryage therein."

Case # 22, Page 32 Ann Hibbon February 1, 1640/1
"Mrs Anne Hibbon our sister was by our pastor, [John Wilson] with the Consent of the Church, Excommunicated out of the Church, for her irregular dealing with our brother John Davisse, in not Admonishing him according to Rule, for what she conceived to be a heynous sinne
in him
; and also for her Causelesse uncharitable Jelousies and suspicions against him and sundry of the brethren that are joyners [workers
in wood], and other Neighbors of the same Calling as if they were of a Combination, extortionously to sett high Rates upon their worke,
and that against their Conscience they had over-valued some worke wrought in her husbands house by one John Crabtree, a joyner; whereas the brethren did solemnly in the face of the Church take God to witnesse, that they did nothing therein against their Conscience, but according to the light thereof
; Neverthelesse she peristed in her Judgeing and condemning of them, leaving it to the Lord to bring out
the Trueth of it. And likewise for sundry Untruethes openly proved by sundry of the brethren against her whereof, though she was Convinced, yet she made not any humble and penitentiall acknowledgement therof;
Morover for her causeless Condemning of the Churches Censure of admonition upon her to bee unjust, although she was privately admonished thereof by sundry of the brethren and sisters, but still continued Impenitent and obstinate in these thinges, not hearkning to her husband at home; nor to the brethren and sisters in private, noe nor yet to the whole Church in Publique."

Case # 23, Page 33 Richard Wayte April 18, 1641
"Whereas our brother Richard Wayte on the 19th day of the 5th Moneth 1640, was Excommunicated and Cast out of the Church for grosse Dissembling and Sinfull Confederacy and pratises [practices] with one Lester Gunton and other Offensive Carryags [deportment], He is this day upon his penitentiall acknowledgement thereof (by the Grace of God) Received again into the Fellowship of the Church."

Case # 24, Page 34 Francis Hutchinson July 18, 1641
"Our brother Francis Hutchinson was by our pastor [John Wilson] (with the Consent of the Church) Excommunicated out of the Church for sundry Errors, but cheifely these; 1. For denying particuler congregated Churches since the Apostacy of Ante Christ. 2ly) That there is or can be any Presbitery without Apostles or Evangelists and 3ly) That Christ gave any power to pastors or teachers to Baptize. As also for giveing Revyling speeches against this our Church of Boston--Calling it a Whore, a Strympett, upon this occasion, that by some of the members it was said to be the spouse of Christ."

Case # 25, Page 36 James Mattocke October 31, 1641
Case # 26, Page 37 Anne Hett August 7, 1642
Case # 27, Page 37 Edward Bates October 20, 1642
Case # 28, Page 39 Zacheus Bosworth May 28, 1643
Case # 29, Page 39 Anne Hett July 25, 1643
Case # 30, Page 39 Zacheus Bosworth October 5, 1643
Case # 31, Page 41 Edward Bates April 28, 1644
Case # 32, Page 42 Thomas Marshall June 16, 1644
Case # 33, Page 42 Nathaniell Partridge June 30, 1644
Case # 34, Page 42 Arthur Clark October 27, 1644
Case # 35, Page 42 Nathaniell Partridge December 19, 1644
Case # 36, Page 44 Willyam Lytherland July 6, 1645
Case # 37, Page 44 Henry Dawson August 3, 1645
Case # 38, Page 45 Arthur Clarke September 14, 1645
Case # 39, Page 44 William Francklyn December 26, 1645
Case # 40, Page 44 George Clifford February 7, 1646
Case # 41, Page 44 Thomas Marshall March 1, 1646
Case # 42, Page 45 Willyam Francklyn October 4, 1646
Case # 43, Page 46 Simon Bird July 5, 1646
Case # 44, Page 46 Nicholas Charlett July 5, 1646

Case # 45, Page 46 Henry Dawson October 18, 1646
"Our brother Henry Dawson upon his open penitentiall acknowledgment of his Sinnes for which he was cast out of the Church, was now by our Elder Oliver with the Consent of the Church by their silence Restored againe into the fellowship thereof."

Case # 46, Page 46 Mrs Sarah Keayne November 22, 1646
"Our sister Mrs Sarah Keayne was in the name of the Lord Jesus, with the Consent of the Church in open Assembly Admonished of hir Irregular prophesying in mixt Assemblies and for Refusing ordinarily to heare in the Churches of Christ."

Case # 47, Page 47 Willyam Francklyn August 7, 1646
"Our brother Willyam Francklyn upon his Repentance openly confessed for the Sinnes for which he was formerly Excommunicated out of the Church was now againe by Elder Leveritt with the Churches consent by their silence Restored into the followship thereof."

Case # 48, Page 47 George Clifford September 20, 1646
"Our brother George Clifford upon his open professed Repentance to the Churches acceptance by its silence, was discharged of the Admonission for his offence in Mr Wooryes occasions."

Case # 49, Page 48 Mr James Smith July 4, 1647
"Our brother Mr James Smith in the Name and power of the Lord Jesus and with the Consent of the Church by their silence was in open Assembly by our Elder Leveritt Excommunicated out of the Church for uncomely and uncleane fellowship with Anne Grosse the wife of our brother Isack Grosse and for sundry untruthes in his answers about it."

Case # 50, Page 49 Mrs Sarah Keayne October 24, 1647
"Our Sister Mrs Sarah (sometimes the wife of Mr Beniamin Keayne but who Devorsed from Him) having beene formerly Admonished by the Church of her Irregular prophecying in mixt Assemblies, and Refusing ordinarily to heare in the Churches of Christ, and not Answering the Church therein, but falling into odious, lewd, and scandalous uncleane behaviour with one Nicholas Hart an Excommunicate person of Taunton, was by our pastor, in the Name of the Lord Jesus, with the Consent of the Church by their silence, and with the Power of the Lord Jesus, Excommunicated out of the Church."
[Born to Anne & Simon Bradstreet, grand-daughter to Dorothy & Thomas Dudley, Sarah may have had memtal problems. “Devorse” was extremely rare in the Bay Colony.]

Case # 51, Page 49 Simon Bird April 30, 1648
“Our brother Simon Bird professed Repentance for his uncleane dallyance for which he was excommunicated...was now...Restored unto the Fellowship of the Church.”

Case # 52, Page 49 Willyam Harvy April 30, 1648
“...a member of the Church at Ta[u]nton being Recommended to us by letters from thence, falling into Scandall by negligence in his Calling of a Tanner to the spoyling and wasting of many hydes Committed unto his trust, which he laboured to Cover with many lyes and forgeryes, and not giving satisfaction to the brethren in private, and yet being publiquely convicted thereof before the Church by many witnesses, and his owne Confession, it was finally agreed upon by the Consent of the whole Church (which they voted by silence) that Letters should be sent to the Church at Tanton to informe them thereof, and meanewhile Himself warned to forbeare Communion with us at the Lords Table,untill the Lord might be pleased to help him to give better satisfaction.”

Case # 53, Page 52 James Mattocke September 23, 1649
”Our brother James Mattocke for Drunkenesse and outrage thereupon on the Lords Day, was in the Name of the Lord, with the Consent of the Church by their silence Cast out of it.

Case # 54, Page 52 John Hurd January 21, 1650
“Our brother John Hurd with the Consent of the Church was in the Name of the Lord Cast out for Drunkennesse, having had often warning thereof.”

Case # 55, Page 52 John Spurre June 1, 1651
“John Spurre for his insolent bearing witnes against Baptisme and singing and the church covenant as noe ordinances of god was with the Consent of the church admonished the 1st day of the 4th moneth 1651.”

Case # 56, Page 52 Richard Lippincott July 6, 1651
“Richard Lippincott for with Drawinge communion from the fellowship of the church [i e, leaving the church], and being demaunded a ground of his so walking he would give none, but sayd he wanted a commission to speake, whereuppon, for not hearing the church in their convincing arguments, was excomunicate from the fellowship of the church the 6th day of the 5th moneth 1651 in the name of the Lord Jesus and with the consent of the church, being admonished twice before.”

Case # 57, Page 52 John Spurre July 13, 1651
“Our brother John Spurre was in the publique Congregation with the Consent of the church by silence in the Name of the Lord excommunicated from the fellowship of the church: for his with
Drawinge commmunion from the church at the Lords table [i e, leaving the church], and he professed he could hold noe more communion with the church as it stood, and also questioned baptisme, singing of psalmes, and church covenant as being but humaine [human] Inventions, and thereby charged the church as supersticious idoliters, and our officers as hipocrits, and the ordinances of christ as humaine Inventions by the scriptures he brought, as in the 17 of Acts 16 and 22 vers., 15 Mat.7-9 vers., Col. 1:21.”
[Acts 16:17 - ‘Once...we (Paul and Silas) were met by a slave girl who had a spirit by which she predicted the future. She earned a great deal of money for her owners by fortune-telling...shouting, “These men are servants of the Most High God, who are telling you the way to be saved.” She kept this up for many days. Finally, Paul became so troubled that he turned around and said to the spirit, “In the name of Jesus Christ I command you to come out of her!” At that moment the spirit left her. When the owners of the slave girl realized that their hope of making money was gone, they seized Paul and Silas and dragged them into the marketplace to face the authorities. They brought them before the magistrates and said, “These men are Jews, and are throwing our city into an uproar by advocating customs unlawful for us Romans to accept or practice.” (NB If a religion failed to receive Roman approval, it was considered religio illicita; i e, Judaism had legal recognition, but Christianity did not).]
[Acts 16:22 - ‘The crowd joined in the attack against Paul and Silas, and the magistrates ordered them to be stripped and beaten.’ ]
[Matthew 15:7-9 - "You hypocrites! Isaiah was right when he prophesied about you: These people honor me with their lips, but their hearts are far from me. They worship me in vain; their teachings are but rules taught by men.”’]
[Colossians 1:21 - “Once you were alienated from God and were enemies in your minds because of your evil behavior. Meaning: Freedom from Human Regulations comes through Life with Christ.] [Did John Spurre understand this? Texts and commentary from ‘The NIV Study Bible.’]

Case # 58, Page53 An Burden September 28, 1651
Case # 59, Page 54 Nichlis Upsall December 7, 1651
Case # 60, Page 53 Willyam Franklin July 4, 1652
Case # 61, Page 53 John Hurd August 15, 1652
Case # 62, Page 53 James Mattocke March 13, 1653
Case # 63, Page54 Ezekiell Everill April 3, 1653
Case # 64, Page 54 Heniry Evines June 26, 1653
Case # 65, Page 54 John Hurd December 11, 1653
Case # 66, Page 55 Jarrod Bourne May 13, 1655
Case # 67, Page 56 Georg Halsoll May 20, 1655
Case # 68, Page 57 Arthur Clarke November 2, 1656
Case # 69, Page 57 Ann Gillam February 22, 1657
Case # 70, Page 56 Ezekiel Everill June 4, 1657
Case # 71, Page 56 Joan Hogg July 12, 1657
Case # 72, Page 57 Joseph Hogg August 16, 1657
Case # 73, Page 58 Sister Knight August 7, 1659
Case # 74, Page 59 Willlyam Leatherland June 16, 1661
Case # 75, Page 58 Sampson Shore June 6,1662
Case # 76, Page 58/9 Henry Evens July 5, 1663
Case # 77, Page 59 John Hurd [ND]
Case # 78, Page 58/9 Isaak Waker July 5, 1663
Case # 79, Page 59 Anne Parker and Ann Maning November 15, 1663
Case # 80, Page 60 John Cotton [Jr] May 1, 1664
Case # 81, Page 60 Allexsaunder Adams May 8, 1664
Case # 82, Page 60 William Cotton [a butcher] June 5, 1664
Case # 83, Page 60/1 John Cotton [Jr] June 12, 1664
Case # 84, Page 61 Alice Tinker July 17, 1664
Case # 85, Page 61 Beleeve Gridle Ocober 9, 1664
Case # 86, Page 61 John Weeb May 21, 1665
Case # 87, Page 60 John Weeb September 24, 1665
Case # 88, Page 60 Allexsaunder Adams April 1, 1666
Case # 89, Page 61 George Bates November 11, 1666
Case # 90, Page 61 John Hurd November 25, 1666
Case # 91, Page 63 Robert Sanford January 19, 1667
Case # 92, Page 62 George Bates May 5, 1667
Case # 93, Page 62 Wilyam Cotton September 15, 1667
Case # 94, Page 62 Allexsaunder Adams February 7, 1668
Case # 95, Page 61/2 Robert Sanford October 11, 1668
Case # 96, Page 62 Mary Wharton February 28, 1669
Casd # 97, Page 62 Mary Negosse March 28, 1669
Case # 98, Page 64 Richard Gridley June 19, 1670
Case # 99, Page 64 Richard Wait June 26, 1670
Case # 100, Page 64/5 William Parsons June 26, 1670
[Average, 4 cases per year. To be continued.]